debt and equity
shares and debentures

If the rate of return on capital employed (i.e., shareholders’ fund + long- term borrowings) exceeds the fixed rate of interest paid to debt-holders, the company is said to be trading on equity. Therefore, a company, by issuing preference shares and debentures, can considerably increase the rate of dividend on the equity shares. Any excess earnings over cost of debt will be added up to the equity shareholders.

  • Towards the end of the period, banking resources become easy owing to strain being released.
  • As a result, the Nigerian Communications Commission had set parameters for regulating capital structure to ensure the sustainability of the industry.
  • In the U.S., banks are required to hold a minimum amount of capital as a risk mitigation requirement as directed by the central banks and banking regulations.
  • A good capital structure does not allow the equity shareholders control on business to be diluted.

Capital structure decision is a crucial financial decision as it directly affects the growth rate of the company, its credit standing, share prices and ultimately the overall value of the company. On the other hand modern experts of finance believe that no such optimum capital structure exists. This is the MM approach which was developed by Modigliani and Miller in 1958. A company is said to be highly geared if the large amount of capital is composed of debts.

What Measures Do Analysts and Investors Use to Evaluate Capital Structure?

Calculate EPS for all four alternatives and select the preferable financial plan. The benefits are more when a firm uses debt as a source of finance, due to cheap and the interest is tax deductible source. Use of debt can be used to maximise shareholders’ wealth only when a firm has a high level of operating profit . EBIT-EPS analysis is one way to study the relation between earnings per share and various possible levels of operating profit , under various financial plans. The capital structure should provide a room for expansion or starting of new projects by raising debt and equity capital when need arises.


A capital structure concept generally raises finance by issuing two kinds of securities viz. The ownership securities consist of preference shares and equity shares. According to Gerstenberg, “The type of securities to be issued and the proportionate amounts that make up the capitalisation is known as capital structure or financial structure”. Thus, according to him, capital structure refers to the make-up of a firm’s capitalisation. The term ‘capital structure’ refers to the composition or make up of the amount of long-term financing. It includes all the long-term securities such as shares issued, debentures outstanding, long-term loans and surpluses and reserves.

Capital vs. Money

To maximize firm value, management should target the optimal capital structure that minimizes the company’s weighted average cost of capital. Financing decisions typically are tied to investment spending and are based on the company’s ability to support debt given the nature of its business model, assets, and operating cash flows. We tend to think of capital structure as the result of a conscious decision by management, but it is not that simple. A good capital structure does not allow the equity shareholders control on business to be diluted. The selection of the proper time for floatation of a company is an important factor in financial management and capital gearing.

Equity and debt are the two central funds arranged in the capital structure; however, different types have other arrangements. In brief, an optimal structure focuses on a healthy mix of equity and debt capital, whereas equity and debt structures focus on raising corresponding funds for the firm and its operation. Lastly, we have also discussed the importance of capital structure. Equity capital structure is another type of capital structure.

FAQs on Capital Structure

These weights can be derived from the right-hand side of a balance sheet. Recall that accounting-based book values listed on traditional financial statements reflect historical costs. The market-value balance sheet is similar to the accounting balance sheet, but all values are current market values. To learn more, check out CFI’s business valuation course or FREE intro to corporate finance course. Capital structure is how a company funds its overall operations and growth. Explain about Modigliani – miller theory of capital structure.

corporate taxes

These items the company needs to conduct its operations are assets. Capital structure increases the country’s rate of investment and growth by increasing the firm’s opportunity to engage in future wealth-creating investments. There are many tradeoffs that owners and managers of firms have to consider when determining their capital structure. Private companies may have a harder time using debt over equity, particularly small businesses which are required to have personal guarantees from their owners. In order to optimize the structure, a firm can issue either more debt or equity. The new capital that’s acquired may be used to invest in new assets or may be used to repurchase debt/equity that’s currently outstanding, as a form of recapitalization.

Suppose a company has a total investment of Rs.10,00,000 and earns a profit at the rate of 10 per cent on it. If the company had raised the entire capital by the issue of equity shares, it cannot pay more than 10 per cent as dividend, or more than Rs.1,00,000. Thus, trading on the equity is an arrangement under which a company makes use of borrowed funds carrying a fixed rate of interest in such a way as to increase the rate of return on the equity shares. The ratio which the different types of the securities bear to the total capitalization means “gearing”.

There is anticipation that the pricing difference, will at some point cancel out or reach at equilibrium. In the case of an individual, it comprises wages or salaries or other payments. The asset’s value is divided into regular payment intervals of the asset’s unpaid portion plus interest. There are various determinants of optimum capital structure that leave a significant impact on the operations and management of the organization.

Initially, the automobile starts with a low gear and as it gets momentum low gear has to be changed to high gear. In the same way in the beginning an enterprise will have to be started with a low gear i.e. with a larger amount of equity share capital. Optimal capital structure is a point where overall cost of capital decreases to its minimum point, while total value of the organization increases to its maximum point. It can be seen in Figure-6 that when an organization increases its capital beyond minimum point, the total cost of capital increases and value of the organization decreases. Ii) Capital structure with both equity shares and preference shares.

How can poor capital structure determine the weak firm?

A decision about the proportion among the types of securities refers to the capital structure of enterprises. The ability to generate cash flow plays an essential role in attaining optimum structure. Conserving the cash flow and predicting future requirements and shortages can help a company create a lower debt or preference capital structure. Thus, the predictability and variability of cash flow are crucial determinants of capital structure.

Vendor FinanceVendor Financing, also known as trade credit, is lending of money by the vendor to its customers who in turn use the money to buy products/services from the same vendor. Vendor Financing is when the borrower uses the borrowed amount for goods/services from the lender itself. The vendor gives a line of credit to its customer based on their goodwill and rapport. Let us calculate capital structure using theDebt/Equity formula.

To finance any investment or arrange any single rupee, firm has to take capital structure decision. If we raise additional funds through issue of equity shares then control over company of existing shareholders will be diluted. Existing management control and ownership remains undisturbed with debt finance. Optimum capital structure is a point of balance where the debt and equity form a proportionate relationship maximizing a company’s wealth and minimizing its cost of capital. As a result, companies create it to regulate finances and clear off their debt burdens.

This is exactly equal to the EBIT, so no cash is available for shareholders. Under this scenario, the value of equity will be zero since shareholders will never receive a payment. Since the market value of the company’s debt is $75,000, and there is no probability of default, the total value of the company is the market value of debt.

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